BS Programs

BS Biotechnology

BS Microbiology

BS Biochemistry

Eligibility Criteria:

To apply for BS in any of above mentioned programs, a candidate must have at least 45% marks or 2nd division in F.Sc. Pre-Medical /A level or an equivalent.

Degree Requirements:
  • BS degree will be awarded per HEC Criteria after the successful completion of 132-134 credit hours depending on the discipline. Students will be required to have CGPA of 2.50 at the time of graduation
  • BS programs are equivalent to 16 years M.Sc. Programs of the same field
  • The degree program fulfils all the curriculum requirements per HEC criteria, comprising of Compulsory, General, Foundation, Major and Elective Courses
  • The basic training on Research Work & Thesis / Review Report is also imparted during 7th and 8th semester

M.Sc. Program

M.Sc. Biotechnology

Eligibility Criteria:

To apply for M.Sc. Biotechnology, a candidate must have at least 45% marks or 2nd division in B.Sc. from HEC recognized institute and have studied at least two of the following subjects in B.Sc. such as Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Zoology, Botany, Anatomy etc. or equivalent.

Degree Requirements:
  • M.Sc. degree will be awarded per HEC Criteria after the successful completion of 66 credit hours (including Course Work and Research). Further, students will be required
to have at least 2.50 CGPA at the time of degree completion
  • The degree program fulfils all the curriculum requirements for M.Sc. Program per HEC criteria
  • Research Work & Thesis/ Review Report will be undertaken during 3rd and 4th semester comprising of 12 credit hours

MS Programs

MS Biotechnology

MS Microbiology

MS Biochemistry

Eligibility Criteria:
  • To apply for MS in any of above mentioned programs, a candidate must have at least 2nd division or minimum of 2.50 CGPA in BS/M.Sc. (Biochemistry, Microbiology, Biotechnology, Molecular Biology, etc.) from any HEC recognized institute.
  • Candidate will be required to clear GAT-General from NTS with a minimum of 50% cumulative score. Alternatively, Entry Test and Interview will be conducted by the University and admission will be granted purely on the merit basis per HEC Criteria.
Degree Requirements:
  • MS degree will be awarded after successful completion of about 24 credit hours for course work and 06 credit hours for research work and thesis during 3rd and 4th semesters with minimum of CGPA 2.50 strictly per HEC Criteria. Normally, the program spreads over 2 years and contains 4 semesters
  • The degree program fulfils all the curriculum requirements for MS, recommended by HEC
  • The research work and thesis will be undertaken during 3rd and 4th semesters comprising of 06 credit hours

PhD Programs

PhD Microbiology

PhD Biochemistry

Eligibility Criteria:
  • To apply for PhD in any of above mentioned programs, a candidate must have 18 years of education with at least 3.00 CGPA in MS/M.Phil. in the relevant field of the study.
  • Candidate will be required to clear GAT-Subject
from NTS with a minimum of 60% cumulative
score. Alternatively Entry Test and Interview will be conducted by the University and admission will be granted purely on merit basis per HEC Criteria.
Degree Requirements:
  • PhD degree is awarded after successful completion of about 18 credit hours for course work followed by Comprehensive Examination and 30 credit hours for research work & thesis in 3 to 5 years with minimum of CGPA 3.00/4.00
  • The degree program fulfils all the curriculum requirements for PhD strictly per HEC criteria
  • After course work and Comprehensive Examination, advanced research work & thesis will be undertaken during the remaining semesters comprising 30 credit hours along with Plagiarism Test, Thesis Evaluation by Subject Experts and Research Paper Publication per HEC requirement.

Microbiology

Advances in medicine, greater longevity and a rapidly expanding world population continue to increase the numbers of people at the risk of infection. The situation compounded by the emergence of multi-drug resistant microbes and the lack of new clinically effective anti- infective agents compelled us to establish Microbiology section under FLS. Research within the Molecular Microbiology Group will be directed towards the acquisition of novel molecular and cellular insights into host pathogen interactions, quorum sensing and the evolution of virulence and drug resistance with a view to the discovery of new therapeutic and preventative strategies against Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens.

Sample Course Plan for BS Microbiology

Year - 1, Semester 1
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 (Compulsory) English I 3 (3+0)
2 (Compulsory) Pakistan Studies 2 (2+0)
3 (Compulsory) Islamic Studies / Ethics 2 (2+0)
4 General-I (Human Physiology-I) 3 (2+1)
5 Foundation-I (Fundamentals of Microbiology-I) 4 (2+2)
Total (Credit Hours) 17 (14+3)
Year - 1, Semester 2
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 (Compulsory) English-II 3 (3+0)
2 (Compulsory) Mathematics-II/ Univ. Optional Biostatistics) 3 (3+0)
3 General-II (Human Physiology-II) 3 (2+1)
4 General-III (Biochemistry-I) 3 (2+1)
5 General-IV (Biochemistry-II) 3 (2+1)
5 Foundation-II (Fundamentals of Microbiology-II) 4 (2+2)
Total (Credit Hours) 19 (14+5)
Year - 2, Semester 3
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 (Compulsory) Computer Application 3 (2+1)
2 General-V (Sociology) 3 (3+0)
3 General-VI (General Genetics) 3 (2+1)
4 Foundation-III (Introduction to Medical Microbiology) 4 (2+2)
5 Foundation-IV (General Immunology) 3 (2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 16 (11+5)
Year - 2, Semester 4
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 General-VII (Ecology & Ecosystem) 3 (2+1)
2 General-VIII (Biodiversity of Plants & Fungi) 3 (2+1)
3 Foundation-V (Microbial Taxonomy) 3 (2+1)
4 Foundation-VI (General Virology) 3 (2+1)
5 Foundation-VII (Cell Biology-I) 3 (2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 15 (10+5)
Year - 3, Semester 5
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Foundation-VIII (Mycology) 3 (2+1)
2 Foundation-IX (Research Methodology) 3 (2+1)
3 Major-I (Cell Biology-II) 3 (2+1)
4 Major-II (Microbial Anatomy & Physiology) 3 (2+1)
5 Major-III (Fresh Water Microbiology) 3 (2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 15 (10+5)
Year - 3, Semester 6
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Foundation-X (Biosafety & Risk Mgmt.) 3 (3+0)
2 Major-IV (Bacterial Genetics) 4 (2+2)
3 Major-V (Clinical Bacteriology) 4 (2+2)
4 Major-VI (Soil Microbiology) 3 (2+1)
5 Major-VII (Epidemiology, Public Health & Bioethics) 3(2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 17 (11+6)
Year - 4, Semester 7
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Major-VIII (Environmental Biotechnology) 3 (2+1)
2 Major-IX (Molecular Mechanism of Antimicrobial Agent) 4 (2+2)
3 Elective-I (Applied Microbial Technology) 3 (2+1)
4 Elective-II (Cell & Tissue Culture) 3 (0+3)
5 Major-X (Research Project / Internship / Special Paper-I) 3(2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 16 (8+8)
Year - 4, Semester 8
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Major-XI (Genetic Engineering) 4 (2+2)
Total Credit Hours (Theory + Practical 132 (86+46)

Sample Course Plan for MS Microbiology

Year - 1, Semester 1
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Advanced Microbiology 3(3+0) Core
2 Advanced Techniques in Microbiology 3(2+1) Core
3 Advanced Virology 3(3+0) Core
4 Biostatistics 3(3+0) Elective
Total Credit Hours (Theory + Practical 12
Year - 1, Semester 2
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Applied GMO Technology 3(3+0) Core
2 Adv. Medical Microbiology 3(3+0) Elective
3 Microbial Genetics and Diseases 3(3+0) Core
4 Bioinformatics 3(3+0) Elective
Total Credit Hours (Theory + Practical 12
Year - 2, Semester 3
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Research and Thesis 3(0+3) Core
Total Credit Hours (Theory + Practical 3
Year - 2, Semester 4
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Research and Thesis 3(0+3) Core
Total Credit Hours 30

Sample Course Plan for PhD Microbiology

Year - 1, Semester 1
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Molecular Genetics 3 Core
2 Industrial Microbiology 3 Core
3 Frontiers in Microbiology 3 Core
Total Credit Hours 9
Year - 1, Semester 2
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Food Microbiology 3 Core
2 Microbial Biochemistry 3 Elective
3 Microbial Biotechnology 3 Elective
Total Credit Hours 9
Remaining Semesters
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Research & Thesis 30 Core
Total Credit Hours 48

Potential Courses and Research Work for PhD Microbiology

Note: The Panel of PhD Supervisors will propose six courses from the above list according to the Research Field of the Concerned Supervisor and subject to the condition that such course(s) is/are not already studied during M.Phil./MS

S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Molecular Genetics 3 (3+0)
2 Industrial Microbiology 3 (3+0)
3 Frontiers in Microbiology 3 (3+0)
4 Food Microbiology 3 (3+0)
5 Microbial Biochemistry 3 (3+0)
6 Microbial Biotechnology 3 (3+0)
7 Advanced Microbiology 3 (3+0)
8 Medical Microbiology-I 3 (3+0)
9 Medical Microbiology-II 3 (3+0)
10 Microbial Genetics & Diseases 3 (3+0)
11 Techniques in Microbiology 3 (3+0)
12 Recent Trends in Immunology 3 (3+0)
13 Genomics, Transcriptomics & Proteomics 3 (3+0)
14 Signal Transduction 3 (3+0)
15 Cell & Tissue Culture 3 (3+0)
16 Prob. Base Learning in Molecular Genetics 3 (3+0)
17 Advances in Microbial Genetics 3 (3+0)
18 General and Medical Genetics 3 (3+0)
19 Advanced Virology 3 (3+0)
20 Epidemiology 3 (3+0)
21 Medical Parasitology 3 (3+0)
22 Applied Genetics 3 (3+0)
23 Bacterial Genetics 3 (3+0)
24 Human Genetics 3 (3+0)
25 Microbial Enzymology 3 (3+0)
26 Term Papers and Scientific Writing 3 (3+0)
27 Research & Thesis 3 (3+0)

Biotechnology

In the discipline of Biotechnology, Degrees are offered at the level of MS, M.Sc. and BS. Faculty is highly competitive and strives to fulfill significant demand
in Biomedical, Pharmaceutical and Industry. A large number of students are seeking admission during each semester to qualify for higher research programs within the University while a good proportion of meritorious students aim to pursue further research studies in different overseas universities after completing degrees from FLS. Graduating students may seek employment in the renowned organizations in this country as well as abroad.

Sample Course Plan for BS Biotechnology

Year - 1, Semester 1
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 (Compulsory) English I 3 (3+0)
2 (Compulsory) Pakistan Studies 2 (2+0)
3 (Compulsory) Islamic Studies / Ethics 2 (2+0)
4 (Compulsory) Mathematics/Biology 3 (3+0)
5 General-I (Physical Chemistry) 3 (3+0)
6 Foundation-I (Microbiology) 3 (2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 16 (15+1)
Year - 1, Semester 2
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 (Compulsory) English-II 3 (3+0)
2 (Compulsory) Biomathematics 3 (3+0)
3 General-II (Inorganic Chemistry) 3 (2+1)
4 General-III (Organic Chemistry) 3 (2+1)
5 General-IV (Ecology, Biodiversity & Evaluation-I) 3 (3+0)
6 Foundation-II (Biochemistry-I) 3 (2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 18 (15+3)
Year - 2, Semester 3
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 (Compulsory) English-III (Writing & Comp) 3 (3+0)
2 (Compulsory) Introduction to Computer Science 3 (2+1)
3 General-V (Ecology, Biodiversity & Evaluation-II) 3 (2+1)
4 General-VI (Biological Physics) 3 (3+0)
5 Foundation-III (Biochemistry-II) 3 (2+1)
6 Foundation-IV (Cell Biology) 3 (3+0)
Total (Credit Hours) 18 (15+3)
Year - 2, Semester 4
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 General-VII (Sociology) 3 (3+0)
2 General-VIII (Marketing) 3 (3+0)
3 Foundation-V (Classical Genetics) 3 (3+0)
4 Foundation-VI (Probability & Biostatistics) 3 (3+0)
5 Foundation-VII (Analytical Chemistry & Instrumentation) 3 (2+1)
6 Foundation-VIII (Molecular Biology) 3 (3+0)
Total (Credit Hours) 18 (17+1)
Year - 3, Semester 5
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Major-I (Principles of Biochemical Engineering) 3 (2+1)
2 Major-II (Agriculture Biotechnology) 3 (2+1)
3 Foundation-IX (Introduction to Biotechnology) 3 (3+0)
4 Foundation-X (Immunology) 3 (3+0)
5 Foundation-XI (Methods in Molecular Bio) 3 (1+2)
Total (Credit Hours) 15 (11+4)
Year - 3, Semester 6
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Foundation-XII (Genetic Resources & Conservation) 3 (3+0)
2 Foundation-XIII (Microbial Biotechnology) 3 (3+0)
3 Major-III (Health Biotechnology) 3 (3+0)
4 Major-IV (Environmental Biotechnology) 3 (3+0)
5 Major-V (Food Biotechnology) 3 (3+0)
6 Elective-I (Nano-Biotechnology) 3 (2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 18 (17+1)
Year - 4, Semester 7
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Major-VI (Genomics & Proteomics) 3 (3+0)
2 Major-VII (Seminar-I) 1 (1+0)
3 Major-VIII (Bioinformatics) 3 (1+2)
4 Major-IX (Industrial Biotechnology) 3 (3+0)
5 Major-X (Research Project / Internship / Special Paper-I) 3 (3+0)
6 Elective-II (Cell & Tissue Culture) 3 (2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 16 (13+3)
Year - 4, Semester 8
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Elective-III (Virology) 3 (2+1)
2 Elective-IV (Fermentation Biotechnology) 3 (2+1)
3 Major-XI (Seminar-II) 1 (1+0)
4 Major-XII (Research Methodology & Skill Enhancement) 3 (3+0)
5 Major-XIII (Research Project / Internship / Special Paper-I) 3 (3+0)
6 Biosafety & Bioethics (C) 2 (2+0)
Total Credit Hours (Theory + Practical 134 (116+18)

Sample Course Plan for M.Sc. Biotechnology

Year - 1, Semester 1
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Introduction to Biochemistry 4 Core
2 Introduction to Molecular Biology & iotechnology 4 Core
3 Genetic Resources & Conservation 3 Elect
4 Industrial Biotechnology 2 Core
5 Environmental Biotechnology 3 Core
Total Credit Hours 16
Year - 1, Semester 2
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Recombinant DNA Technology 4 Core
2 Immunology 4 Elect
3 Food Biotechnology 4 Core
4 Agricultural Biotechnology 2 Core
5 Biostatistics 3 Elect
Total Credit Hours 17
Year - 2, Semester 3
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Techniques in Biotechnology. 3 Core
2 Health Biotechnology. 2 Core
3 Cell & Tissue Culture. 3 Core
4 Genetics, Transcriptomics & Proteomics. 3 Core
5 Research & Thesis/Review Report. 6 Core
Total Credit Hours 17
Year - 2, Semester 4
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Nano-Biotechnology 3 Core
2 Microbial Biotechnology & Vaccinology. 4 Core
3 Bioinformatics. 3 Elect
4 Research & Thesis/Review Report. 3 Core
Total Credit Hours 66

Sample Course Plan for MS Biotechnology

Year - 1, Semester 1
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Advances in Biotechnology 3(3+0) Core
2 Advanced Techniques in Biotechnology 3(2+1) Core
3 Genomics and Proteomics 3(3+0) Elect
4 Applied GMO Technology 3(3+0) Core
Total Credit Hours 12
Year - 1, Semester 2
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Stem Cell Technology & Cell Culture 3(3+0) Elect
2 Advanced Immunology 3(3+0) Core
3 Advanced Recombinant DNA Technology 3(3+0) Core
4 Bioinformatics 3(3+0) Elect
Total Credit Hours (Theory + Practical 12
Year - 2, Semester 3
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Research and Thesis 3(0+3) Core
Total Credit Hours 3
Year - 2, Semester 4
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Research and Thesis 3(0+3) Core
Total Credit Hours 30

Biochemistry

Biochemistry is a central discipline to all Branches of Biology/ Life Sciences. It deals with the chemical nature, function, structure, energetic and pathways of synthesis and degradation of simple to complex biological and/or cellular molecules to understand the various aspects of cellular and molecular functions in development, health and disease with applications in Biotechnology, Microbiology and Medicine. Biochemistry at FLS is one of the most vibrant and visible faculty among the Pakistani Universities because of its location, the competition for admission in the PhD, MS and BS Programs. FLS has ideal students to the faculty ratio, teaching experience of the faculty, publications, extra research grants/support the faculty generates from National and International Organizations and in terms of infrastructural facilities. In addition, the faculties are able to fortify collaboration in the new and interdisciplinary research areas such as Nano-Biology, Medical Biotechnology, and Stem Cell Biology etc.

Sample Course Plan for BS Biochemistry

Year - 1, Semester 1
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 (Compulsory) English I 3 (3+0)
2 (Compulsory) Pakistan Studies 2 (3+0)
3 (Compulsory) Islamic studies /Ethics 2 (3+0)
4 (Compulsory) Mathematics/Biology 3 (3+0)
5 General-I (Social Science I) 3 (3+0)
6 Foundation-I (Introduction to (Biochemistry) 4 (3+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 17 (16+1)
Year - 1, Semester 2
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 (Compulsory) English-II 3 (3+0)
2 (Compulsory) Biostatistics 3 (3+0)
3 General-II (Social Science II) 3 (3+0)
4 General-III (Marketing and Management) 3 (3+0)
5 General-IV (Organic Chemistry) 3 (2+1)
6 Foundation-II (Carbohydrates and Lipids) 4 (3+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 19 (17+2)
Year - 2, Semester 3
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 (Compulsory) English-III (Writing & Comp) 3 (3+0)
2 ( Compulsory) Introduction to Computer Science 3 (2+1)
3 General-V (Inorganic Chemistry) 3 (2+1)
4 General-VI (Physical Chemistry) 3 (2+1)
5 Foundation-III (Amino Acid & Proteins) 4 (3+1)
6 Foundation-IV (Human Physiology) 3 (3+0)
Total (Credit Hours) 19 (15+4)
Year - 2, Semester 4
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 General-VII (Biophysics/Analytical Ch.) 3 (3+0)
2 General-VIII (Genetics) 3 (3+0)
3 Foundation-V (Enzymes) 3 (2+1)
4 Foundation-VI (Molecular Biology) 3 (3+0)
5 Foundation-VII (Metabolism) 4 (4+0)
6 General-IX (Microbiology) 3 (2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 19 (17+2)
Year - 3, Semester 5
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Major-I (Cell Biology) 3 (2+1)
2 Major-II (Biochemistry Techniques) 3 (1+2)
3 Major-III (Biosafety & Ethics) 2 (0+2)
4 Major-IV (Plant Biochemistry) 3 (2+1)
5 Major-V (Clinical Biochemistry) 3 (2+1)
6 Elective-I (General Virology) 3 (2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 17 (9+8)
Year - 3, Semester 6
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Elective-II (Cell & Tissue Culture) 3 (2+1)
2 Major-VI (Bio-Membranes & Cell Signaling) 3 (3+0)
3 Major-VII (Bioenergetics) 2 (2+0)
4 Major-VIII (Nutritional Biochemistry) 3 (2+1)
5 Major-IX (bioinformatics) 3 (2+1)
Total (Credit Hours) 14 (11+3)
Year - 4, Semester 7
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Major-X (Industrial Biochemistry) 3 (2+1)
2 Major-XI (Biotechnology) 3 (3+0)
3 Major-XII (Immunology) 3 (3+0)
4 Major-XIII (Current Trends in Biochemistry) 3 (3+0)
5 Research Project/Special Paper-I (M) 3 (0+3)
Total (Credit Hours) 15 (11+4)
Year - 4, Semester 8
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Major-XIV (Environmental Biochemistry) 2 (2+0)
2 Elective-III (Fermentation Biotechnology) 3 (3+0)
3 Elective-IV (Toxicology) 3 (3+0)
4 Internship (M) 3 (0+3)
5 Research Project/Special Paper-II (M) 3 (0+3)
Total Credit Hours 134 (106+28)

Sample Course Plan for MS Biochemistry

Year - 1, Semester 1
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Advances in Biochemistry 3(3+0) Core
2 Advanced Techniques in Biochemistry 3(2+1) Core
3 Biochemistry of Cell Signaling 3(3+0) Core
4 Biostatistics 3(3+0) Elective
Total Credit Hours 12
Year - 1, Semester 2
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Adv. Clinical Biochemistry 3(3+0) Core
2 Advances in Recombinant DNA Technology 3(3+0) Elective
3 Advanced Toxicology 3(3+0) Core
4 Bioinformatics 3(3+0) Elective
Total Credit Hours (Theory + Practical 12
Year - 2, Semester 3
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Research and Thesis 3(0+3) Core
Total Credit Hours 3
Year - 2, Semester 4
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Research and Thesis 3(0+3) Core
Total Credit Hours 30

Sample Course Plan for PhD Biochemistry

Year - 1, Semester 1
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Molecular Genetics 3 Elective
2 Environmental Biochemistry 3 Core
3 Frontiers in Biochemistry 3 Core
Total Credit Hours 9
Year - 1, Semester 2
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Enzymology 3 Core
2 Nutritional Biochemistry 3 Core
3 Metabolic Pathways 3 Elective
Total Credit Hours 9
Remaining Semesters
S. No. Course Cr. Hrs Type
1 Research & Thesis 30 Core
Total Credit Hours 48

Potential Courses and Research Work for PhD Biochemistry

Note: The Panel of PhD Supervisors will propose six courses from the above list according to the Research Field of the Concerned Supervisor and subject to the condition that such course(s) is/are not already studied during M.Phil./MS.

S. No. Course Cr. Hrs
1 Molecular Genetics 3 (3+0)
2 Advanced Environmental Biochemistry 3 (3+0)
3 Frontiers in Biochemistry 3 (3+0)
4 Enzymology 3 (3+0)
5 Nutritional Biochemistry 3 (3+0)
6 Metabolic Pathways 3 (3+0)
7 Advanced Biochemistry 3 (3+0)
8 Advanced Clinical Biochemistry 3 (3+0)
9 Advanced Heterocyclic Compounds 3 (3+0)
10 Recent Trends in Immunology 3 (3+0)
11 Analytical Techniques in Biochemistry 3(1-2)
12 Biochemical Toxicology 3 (3+0)
13 Biochemistry of Signal transduction 3 (3+0)
14 Natural Products: Extraction & Analysis 3 (3+0)
15 Advances in Endocrinology 3 (3+0)
16 Problem Based Learning in Biochemistry 3 (3+0)
17 Microbial Biochemistry and Physiology 3 (3+0)
18 Forensic DNA Typing 3 (3+0)
19 Cell Biology 3 (3+0)
20 Recombinant DNA Technology 3 (3+0)
21 Genomics and Proteomics 3 (3+0)
22 Advances in Endocrinology 3 (3+0)
23 Bioinformatics 3 (3+0)
24 Term Papers & Scientific Writing 3 (3+0)
25 Research and Thesis 30(0-30)