**A****m****plifiers and their Frequency Response: **

Cascade amplifier, The Amplifier pass band, The frequency plot, Low frequency plot, Low frequency limit, The un-bypassed emitter resistor, high frequency equivalent circuit, The Miller Effect, high frequency limit of transistor, bandwidth of a cascade amplifier.

**Feedback: **

Positive and Negative feedback, Principle of feedback amplifier, stabilization of gain by negative feedback, Bandwidth improvement with negative feedback, Reduction of nonlinear distortion, control of amplifier output and input resistance, current series feedback circuit, voltage shunt feedback circuit.

**Oscillators: **

Introduction, Classification of oscillators, Damped and undamped oscillators, the oscillatory circuit, frequency stability of an oscillator, essentials of a feedback LC oscillator, tuned base oscillator, Hartley oscillator, Colpitis oscillator, crystal oscillator.

**Power Amplifiers: **

Introduction, Power relation in class-A amplifiers, effect of thermal environment, determination of the output distortion, class-B amplifier, efficiency of class-A and class-B amplifiers.

**M****odulation and Demodulation: **

Introduction, carrier wave modulation, Need for modulation, radio Broadcasting, Methods of modulation, amplitude modulation, Forms of amplitude modulation, single side band system of modulation, Diode for linear detector for amplitude modulation, High power level amplitude modulation, automatic volume control, Frequency modulation.

**M****ultivibrators: **

Multivibrators, Basic types of Multivibrators, uses of Multivibrators, Astable Multivibrators, Mono-stable Multivibrators, Bi-stable Multivibrators, Schmitt Trigger Circuit.

**Integrated Circuits: **

Introduction, Integrated circuit advantages and drawbacks, scale of integration, classification of integrated circuit by structure, Classification of integrated circuit by function, comparison between different integrated circuit. Integrated circuit terminology, Integrated circu it fabrication, Basic processing steps. Silicon device processes Silicon wafer preparation, diffusion, Oxidation photolithography, Chemical vapour deposition, Metallization, Circuit probing, Scribing and separating into chips, Mounting and packing applications of integrated circuit.

**Digital Circuits:**

Decimal, Binary, Octal, hexadecimal number systems, conversion of decimal numbers to any other number system and vice-versa, Binary codes, OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR logic gates, Boolean Algebra. Boolean expressions, simplification of Boolean expression using Boolean Algebra.