**Objective(s):**

To understand the fundamentals of heat and thermodynamics.

**Basic Concepts and Definitions in Thermodynamics: **

Thermodynamic system, Surrounding and Boundaries. Type of systems. Macroscopic and microscopic description of system. Properties and state of the substance: Extensive and Intensive properties, Equilibrium, Mechanical and Thermal Equilibrium. Processes and Cycles: Isothermal, Isobaric and Isochoric. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, Consequence of Zeroth law of Thermodynamics. The state of the system at Equilibrium.

**Heat and Temperature:**

Temperature, Kinetic theory of ideal gas, Work done on an ideal gas, Review of previous concepts. Internal energy of an ideal gas: Equipartition of Energy, Intermolecular forces, Qualitative discussion, The Virial expansion, The Van der Waals equation of state.

**Thermodynamics: **

First law of thermodynamics and its applications to adiabatic, isothermal, cyclic and free expansion. Reversible and irreversible processes. Second law of thermodynamics, Carnot theorem and Carnot engine. Heat engine, Refrigerators. Calculation of efficiency of heat engines. Thermodynamic temperature scale: Absolute zero, Entropy, Entropy in reversible process, Entropy in irreversible process. Entropy and Second law of thermodynamics, Entropy and Probability. Thermodynamic Functions: Thermodynamic functions (Internal energy, Enthalpy, Gibb’s functions, Entropy, Helmholtz functions), Maxwell’s relations, TdS equations, Energy equations and their applications. Low Temperature Physics, Joule-Thomson effect and its equations. Thermoelectricity: Thermocouple, Seabeck’s effect, Peltier’s effect, Thomson effect.

**Introduction to Statistical Mechanics: **

Statistical distribution and mean values, Mean free path and microscopic calculations of mean free path. Distribution of Molecular Speeds, Distribution of Energies, Maxwell distribution, Maxwell Boltzmann energy distribution, Internal energy of an ideal gas, Brownian Motion Legvaian equation, Qualitative description.