- Pharmacology: Definition of Pharmacology, history and its various branches. Definition of Drug and its various sources.
- Routes of drug administration, advantages and disadvantages.
- Pharmacokinetics: Drug solubility and passage of drug across the biological membranes. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs and factors affecting them. Various pharmacokinetic parameters including volume of distribution (Vd), clearance (Cl), Biological half life (t1/2β) Bioavailability and various factors affecting it. Dose, Efficacy and Potency of drugs. Hypersensitivity and Idiosyncratic reactions, drug tolerance and dependence. Drug interactions. Plasma protein binding.
- Pharmacodynamics: How drugs act? Receptors and their various types with special reference to their molecular structures. Cell surface receptors, signal transduction by cell surface receptors, signaling Mediated by intra cellular receptors, target cell and hyper sensitization, Pharmacological effects not Mediated by receptors (for example anesthetics and cathartics) Ion channel, enzymes, carrier proteins, Drug receptor interactions and theories of drug action. Agonist, antagonist, partial agonist, inverse agonist. Receptors internalization and receptors co-localization. Physiological Antagonism, Pharmacological Antagonism (competitive and non-competitive), Neutralization Antagonism, Neurotransmission and neuro-modulation. Specificity of drug action and factors modifying the action & dosage of drugs. Median lethal dose (LD:50), Median effective dose (ED:50) and Therapeutic Index, Dose-response relationships.
Drugs Acting On Autonomic Nervous System (Ans)
- Organization of ANS its subdivisions and innervations.
- Neurotransmitters in ANS, their synthesis, release and fate.
- Sympathetic agonists: Catecholamines and Noncatecholamines.
- Sympathetic antagonists: Adrenergic receptor Blockers and neuron blockers.
- Parasympathetic (Cholinergic) agonists and cholinesterase enzyme inhibitors (anticholinesterases) Parasympathetic antagonists.
- Ganglion stimulants and Ganglion blockers
- Neuromuscular Blockers
Drugs Acting On Gastrointestinal Tract
- Emetic and anti-emetics
- Anti-diarrheal agents
- Treatment of Peptic & duodenal ulcer: Antacids, H2-Receptor antagonists, antimuscarinic agents, proton pump inhibitors, prostaglandin antagonists, gastrin receptor antagonist and cytoprotective agents
- Drug treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases
- Drugs affecting bile flow and Cholelithiasis
- Only an introduction will be given of the banned and obsolete drug products.
- While dealing with Pharmacology stress should be laid to the group actions of Related drugs and only important differences should be discussed of the individual drugs placed in same group.
- Newly introduced drugs should be included in the syllabus while drugs with no clinical and therapeutic values ought to be excluded from syllabus at any time.
- The prototype drugs in each group from the latest edition of the recommended books.
Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the theoretical topics and availability of the facilities e.g. Preparation of standard solution. Ringer solution. Tyrode solution. Kreb solution. Normal saline solution. To demonstrate the effects of sympathomimetic (Adrenaline) & sympatholytic drugs (Propranolol) on Frog’s heart. To demonstrate the effects of parasympathomimetic (Acetylcholine) and parasympatholytic (Atropine) drugs on Frog’s heart. To demonstrate the effects of an unknown drug on Frog’s heart. Routes of Administration of drugs. To demonstrate the effects of vasconstrictor drugs on Frog’s blood vessels. To demonstrate the effects of stimulant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Acetyl choline, Barium chloride). To demonstrate the effects of depressant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Atropine). To differentiate the effects of an unknown drug on Rabbit’s intestine and identify the (unknown) drug. To study the effects of Adrenaline on Rabbit’s Eyes. To study the effects of Homatropine on Rabbit’s Eyes. To study the effects of Pilocarpine on Rabbit’s Eyes. To study the effects of Local Anaesthetic drug (e.g Cocaine) on Rabbit’s Eyes. To identify the unknown drug & differentiate its effects on Rabbit’s Eyes. To demonstrate emetic effects of various drugs in pigeons (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted).