The course aims to impart knowledge and understanding of:
- The concept and status of Zoology in life sciences and the common processes of life through its biochemical and molecular processes.
- The structure and function of cell organelles and how common animal cell diversified in various tissues, organs and organ systems.
- Biochemical mechanisms eventually generating energy for animal work.
- Animals and their relationship with their environment.
Scope of Zoology:
Introduction; significance and applications of zoology; animal diversity; the scientific method; environment and world resources. The Chemical Basis of Animal Life: Brief introduction to biomolecules; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Structure of animal cells, cell membrane, cytoplasm and its organelles: ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, cilia and flagella, centrioles and microtubules, vacuoles;the nucleus: nuclear envelope, chromosomes and nucleolus. Animal tissues: Types: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue; organs and organ systems.
Structure, types; function and factors affecting their activity; cofactors and coenzymes.
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration: glycolysis, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain; fermentation, the major source of ATP. Reproduction and Development: Types; asexual and sexual, gametogenesis, fertilization, metamorphosis, zygote and early development.
Ecosystem, types, homeostasis, biomes, food chain, food web, energy flow and thermodynamics; biogeochemical cycles, and limiting factors, populations and communities, human population growth, pollution, resource depletion and biodiversity.
- Tests for different carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
- Note: Emphasis on the concept that tests materials have been ultimately obtained from living organisms and constituted their body.
- Study of the prepared slides of epithelial tissue (squamous, cuboidal, columnar), connective tissue (adipose, cartilage, bone, blood), nervous tissue and muscle tissue (skeletal, smooth and cardiac). Note: Prepared microscopic and/or projection slides and/or CD ROM computer projections must be use
- Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood. Preparation of blood smears.
- Protein digestion by pepsin.
- Ecological notes on animals of a few model habitats.
- Field observation and report writing on animals in their ecosystem (a terrestrial and an aquatic ecosystem study).