**Cou****r****se Objectives:**

Students will acquire knowledge to enable themselves to understand the fundamental principles and laws of thermodynamics and chemical equilibria and to investigate the physical properties of ideal/non-ideal binary solutions. Students will also be able to study the rates of reactions and perform related calculations.

**Chemical Thermodynamics:**

Equation of states, ideal and real gases, the virial equation and the van der Waals equation for real gases, critical phenomena and critical constants, four laws of thermodynamics and their applications, thermochemistry, calorimetry, heat capacities and their dependence on temperature, pressure and volume, reversible and non-reversible processes, spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, relations of entropy and Gibbs free energy with equilibrium constant, Gibbs Helmholtz equation, fugacity and activity.

**Chemical Equilibrium:**

General equilibrium expressions, reaction quotients, examples of equilibrium reactions in solid, liquid and gas phases, extent of reactions and equilibrium constants, Gibbs energies of formation and calculations of equilibrium constants, effect of temperature and pressure on the equilibrium constants/compositions, van’t Hoff equation, Le-Chatelier’s principle.

**Solution Chemistry:**

Physical properties of liquids, surface tension, viscosity, refractive index, dipole moment etc. and their applications, brief account of interactions among the molecules in liquids, ideal and non-ideal solutions, Raoult’s law and its applications, lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, vapor pressure of non-ideal solutions and Henry’s law, abnormal colligative properties, degrees of association and dissociation of solutes, osmotic pressure and its measurement, fractional distillation and concept of azeotropic mixtures.

**Chemical Kinetics:**

The rates of reactions, zero, first, second and third order reactions with same and different initial concentrations, half-lives of reactions, experimental techniques for rate determination and methods for determination of order of reaction (integration, half-life, initial rate, and graphical methods), Arrhenius equation.

**CHEM-171 Lab.**

Determination of viscosity and refractive index of liquids.

Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions viscometrically. Determination of refractive index and molar refractivity.

Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions by refractive index measurements.

Determination of molecular weight of a compound by elevation of boiling point (ebullioscopic method).

Determination of molecular weight of a compound by lowering of freezing point (cryoscopic method).

Determination of heat of solution by solubility method. Determination of heat of neutralization of an acid with a base. Kinetic study of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate.

Determination of partition coefficient of a substance between two immiscible liquids.