To understand the optical phenomena and their uses in physical systems
Propagation of Light & Image Formation:
Huygens’ Principle, Fermat’s Principle, Laws of Reflection and Refraction, Refraction at a Spherical Surface, Thin Lenses, Newtonian Equation for a Thin Lens.
Matrix Methods in Paraxial Optics:
Ray Transfer Matrices, Thick Lens, Significance of System Matrix Elements, Cardinal Points of an Optical System with examples, Optical Instruments including Simple Magnifiers, Telescopes and Microscopes, Chromatic and Monochromatic Aberrations, Spherical Aberrations, Coma, Distortion, Stops, Pupils, Windows.
Superposition & Interference:
Standing Waves, Beats, Phase and Group Velocities, Two-Beam and Multiple-Beam Interference, Thin Dielectric Films, Michelson and Fabry-Perot Interferometers, Resolving Power, Free-Spectral Range.
Jones Matrices, Production of Polarized Light, Dichroism, Brewster’s Law, Birefringence, Double Refraction.
From a Single Slit, Rectangular and Circular Apertures, Double Slit, Many Slits, Diffraction Grating, Dispersion, Resolving Power Blazed Gratings.
Zone Plates, Rectangular Apertures, Cornu’s Spiral
Coherence & Holography:
Temporal Coherence, Spatial Coherence, Holography of a Point object and an Extended Object
Stimulated Emission, Population Inversion, Resonators, Threshold and Gain, Multi-layered Dielectric Films.